There are different drivers of exclusion which can be mutually reinforcing. A person’s gender, age, disability, ethnicity, religion or economic status can lead to a pattern of exclusion from society and thereby put them at a disproportionate risk from disaster. During the risk mapping process, the specific risks faced by different groups in a community, must be identified. Ideally by members of the groups themselves.
These are risk, which can affect excluded groups in the community, but are often forgotten in risk assessments:
- Barriers to mobility, because of inaccessible roads/paths, transportation, shelter or due to restrictive social norms.
- Loss of assistive devices.
- Not being provided with early warning messages in time or in an accessible way.
- Separation from families, caregivers or personal assistants during evacuation.
- Limited mobility during disaster due to cultural norms or lack of safe transportation.
- Lack of access to adequate nutrition, medical services and facilities in shelter, safe spaces or displacement camps.
- Sexual exploitation and abuse due to lack of protection in shelter or displacement camps.
- Trafficking for child labor, early and forced marriage, organ trafficking, illegal adoption, sexual exploitation and other forms of trafficking.
- Lower self-rescue ability, partly determined by learned skills such as swimming and tree climbing.
Helpage International. Missing millions: How older people with disabilities are excluded from humanitarian response. 2018.
ADB. Gender-Inclusive Disaster Risk Management. 2013.